Life in the Soil

Life in the Soil

There’s so much that happens below the surface of the soil. There is an entire ecosystem within the rich earth that we grow crops, grass, and trees in. Below are just a few examples of the diverse life that can be found beneath the surface.

Earthworms: Earthworms are “nature’s tillers”. They eat their way through the soil making burrows which increase water infiltration and make room for plant roots to reach deep into the soil. Poop might be gross, but earthworm poop adds a lot of good bacteria, organic matter, and nutrients that plants can use right away into the soil. Tillage is the biggest “bad guy” when it comes to earthworms, and certain fertilizers and insecticides can greatly harm these beneficial animals.

Ants: Ants are arthropods which means they are animals that have a hard exoskeleton. You can find ants all over the world. They form large colonies that make their homes underground. These nests and the tunnels that connect to them allow increased air and water movement throughout the soil. Ant nests also make microbes happy which results in more available nitrogen.

Protozoa: Protozoa are microscopic, but they are still bigger than bacteria, protozoa’s main source of food. Protozoa can impact the amount of organic matter and nutrients available to plants by how much bacteria they eat. Protozoa can take on several shapes. Some are amoebas which move by getting big and then small again. Some have little waving hairs called ciliates, and some move with a flagellum which spins like a whip or a tail.

Nematodes: Nematodes are microscopic worms that live in tiny air and water filled pore spaces in the soil. They eat all kinds of things like fungi, bacteria, algae, other nematodes, protozoa, and insect larvae. Some types of nematodes feed on plant roots which can harm crop growth. Even though some species of nematodes are pests, others are not, and they actually help the release of nitrogen that the plant can easily use. Some species even prey on harmful insect pests.

Fungi: There are at least 1 million fungal species present in the soil. Mushrooms are a type of fungi. They do a really good job of breaking down dead plants and animals which put nutrients into the soil. Fungi helps to stabilize the soil structure and is good at cycling nutrients.

Grubs: Grubs are beetle larvae, meaning they’re baby beetles. Grubs are worm-like, and they live in the soil. They can be anywhere from ¼ inch to 1 inch long with bodies curved in a “C” shape. Grubs feed on plant roots which can greatly stunt the plants growth. They also eat seeds and seedlings which can keep plants from growing.

Ground nesting bees and wasps: Some bees and wasps live inside the soil by making burrows. One example of a ground nesting wasp in a Cicada Killer. These large wasps can be 2 inches long. They dig burrows into the soil that can be 12-18 inches long and 1 ½ inches wide. Cicada Killers paralyze cicadas and lay eggs on them to feed their larvae. These insects do not colonize, but Cicada Killers will often burrow near each other. The males cannot sting, and the females will only sting if they are mishandled.

Annual Cicadas: Cicadas spend their adult lives above ground, but they spend their time as nymphs in the soil. Cicadas lay their eggs in tree branches. When the eggs hatch, the nymphs fall to the ground where they burrow into the soil and feed on plant roots. This can cause damage to young trees and plants. After two years of living in the soil, the nymphs, which look like adult cicadas but without the wings, will emerge from the soil and molt to become a fully formed cicada.

Mole Crickets: Mole crickets have large front legs that they use for digging. Much of their life is spent in the soil. Mole crickets hatch as nymphs, looking very similar to adults, and they dig around in the soil looking for food. Although they spend some of their adult life outside of the soil, they return to the ground in winter. These insects’ tunneling can cause a lot of damage to turf grass, but they can also increase soil aeration and infiltration.

Moles: Moles are insectivores, and they can grow from 5 to 7 inches long. They spend most of their lives in the soil. They have small eyes and ears that are protected by fur. Underground, they don’t have much need for eyesight. They have large claws which help them dig through the soil. Moles can benefit the soil by increasing aeration and infiltration. They help organic matter to travel deeper into the soil, and for subsoil material to move closer to the surface bringing nutrients along with it. Although they can add benefits to the soil, many homeowners find moles a nuisance.

Resources:

Brady, N. C., & Weil, R. R. (2010). Elements of the nature and properties of soil (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.

https://extension.entm.purdue.edu/fieldcropsipm/insects/soybean-white-grubs.php

https://extension.entm.purdue.edu/publications/E-63/E-63.html

https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/periodical-cicada

https://extension.psu.edu/moles#:~:text=Moles%20play%20a%20beneficial%20role%20in%20the%20management,%28organic%20matter%29%20to%20travel%20deeper%20into%20the%20soil.

Farmer Report – Work Smarter, Not Harder

Mike Werling is a fourth generation farmer in Decatur, Indiana. Farming is his lifestyle. He started with his father and now its in his blood. Mike started on his journey of soil health and conservation farming because he hated seeing erosion on his fields.

As a part time employee with the Allen County Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD), Mike has learned that it’s hard for people to change their attitudes, and this lends to challenges in educating other farmers to adopt conservation practices. This does not altar Werling’s determination, though.

Some practices Mike incorporates are cover crops, no-till, grass waterways, water and sediment control basins, buffer strips around his upland areas, and drainage water management.

Werling’s motivation is to leave his soil better than how he found it. Enjoy the full interview with Mike Werling!

Farmer Report – Why Mow When You Can Garden?

Farmer Report – Why Mow When You Can Garden?

In the interview below, Marissa Renz, the founder of Plant Happiness LLC, shares about her journey in developing her 4,000 sq. ft. market garden. Marissa married her love of native plants to her gardening business, and the result has been phenomenal! Not only does she provide food for her family, customers, and beneficial wildlife, but she also educates others on incorporating conservation practices in their growing spaces. Plant Happiness LLC continues to make a positive impact on the environment and the Fort Wayne community.

The market garden grows dozens of plant varieties including vegetables, fruits, leafy greens, and native plants that provide habitat for pollinators and beneficial insects. Crops are grown using sustainable practices such as cover cropping, composting, integrated pest management, and companion planting.

Marissa’s garden shows that no matter what size your lot, garden, or farm is, you can make a big difference on the environment around you. Adding native plants to your landscaping or garden can increase water infiltration into the soil and can provide habitat for beneficial insects and pollinators. Keeping your soil covered with biodiverse plants, mulch, or cover crops keeps soil intact and can build organic matter.

Learn from gardeners like Marissa about how to make a big impact in your community and in your home!

Visit the Plant Happiness LLC website here: planthappinessfw.square.site/

Want to learn from Marissa directly? Check out some of her upcoming classes: https://www.enrole.com/pfw/jsp/instructorDetail.jsp?instructorId=83CE1F68

Bringing Ag and Conservation to the Classroom

Where does your food come from? Many students across Indiana give the answer “the grocery store.” Although this is often true, the grocery store is not the starting place of our food. Farm Bureau’s Agriculture in the Classroom Program works with kids around Indiana teaching them about the origins of their food and why farmers are important. Through this program, Farm Bureau holds summer workshops for teachers and volunteers giving them ideas about how to teach agriculture in their hometown school systems.

The Allen County Soil and Water Conservation District had the opportunity to participate and lead a couple of sessions in one of the Agriculture in the Classroom workshops on June 1st at Huntington University. Mike Werling, a farmer and part time employee with the Allen County SWCD, lead a workshop on managing erosion. Erosion is a menace that has plagued agriculture for millennia. Werling used the slake test, a homemade rainfall simulator, and a purchased rainfall simulator to demonstrate different ways teachers can educate about soil health and erosion control in their own classroom.

The slake test shows the structural difference between soil in a no-till situation and soil in a tillage situation. It utilizes two class cylinders filled with water. Mesh wiring drapes like a hammock from the top of the cylinders and submerges in the water. For this demonstration, you must have two different dried peds of soil. One ped should be from a no-till field and the other from a tilled field. When the aggregates are submerged into the water and placed on the mesh wiring, the audience can see the difference between the tilled soil and the soil from a no-till field. The no-till ped will hold together, but the soil from the tilled field will break apart easily in the cylinder. Check out this video of a slake test!

The homemade rainfall simulator can be made out of 3 plastic, two-liter bottles with 1/3 of the plastic cut out of the side. One of the bottles should contain nothing but bare soil. The second bottle should be filled with soil, but covered with residue like straw, leaves, or sticks. The third bottle should contain growing cover crops (clover, annual rye, cereal rye, oats, etc). Water is then poured over the two-liter bottles. The bottle with bare soil will lose the largest amount of soil to erosion, the soil with a residue will lose significantly less soil because of the residue, and the cover crop soil will lose the least amount of soil when “rain” is introduced to it. Check out this video of a two-liter bottle simulator!

The purchased rainfall simulator works very similarly to the homemade version. Watch this video to see how a rainfall simulator works!

The Allen SWCD also shared a lesson on watersheds and water quality. Joelle Neff used an Enviroscape to teach about how water moves downhill and picks up pollutants in a watershed. Neff also taught a lesson called “Growing with Water” which uses data collected from the Water Quality Initiative Program to discuss why pollutants have varying impacts at different times in the year.

An Enviroscape is a model of a watershed landscape that funnels water into the landscape’s reservoir. The model has a farm, factory, nature preserve, golf course, construction site, neighborhood, water treatment facility, roads, and ditches. Pollutants such as fertilizers, pesticides, human and animal waste, oil, road salt, etc are introduced to the landscape. Simulated rain is then applied to the landscape. Students are able to see all the pollutants that have entered the reservoir after the rain. This tool has fairly easy clean up. You can remove the plug in the reservoir to drain water into the basin below.

Tracking sheet on which students can match the colored paper to its designated attribute. The colored pieces of paper represent the percentage of time the attributes are too high or too low.

Like mentioned earlier, “Growing with Water” uses data collected from the Fort Wayne Water Quality Initiative Program which has been collecting water samples weekly in Northeast Indiana and Northwest Ohio since 2002. Check with your local Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) to see if collect water samples in your area. “Growing with Water” teaches students about the quality of water in their area and the different pollutants that can impact their water systems. Growing with Water shows the variances of water quality in different seasons. Split your class into three different groups: spring, summer, and fall. Have each group come up with a list of what is happening in agriculture and with the weather in their season. Then, provide students a tracking sheet with the percentage of time that the pollutants were higher than they should have been. Have the students work in their groups to make hypotheses about reasoning for the pollutant levels based off what is happening in their season.

If you would like to use any of these demonstrations to teach in your classroom, give the Allen County SWCD a call at 260-484-5848 ext. 3.

Farmer Report – The ROI of Conservation Tillage

Derek Thompson, a Noble County Farmer and NRCS District Conservationist, shared about life on the farm and the return on investment of incorporating conservation practices onto his operation in an interview with the Allen County Soil and Water Conservation District.

Thompson is a third generation farmer of a 1,000-acre grain and dairy farm. His family’s conservation journey started in the ’70s when his father tried out a no-till corn planter from the Noble County SWCD. Although not lead adopters, the Thompson family now incorporates no-till and VRT soil management into all their acreage because of their return on investment, time savings, and the pride that comes with restoring the soil and the land. Their other conservation practices include sidedressing nitrogen, buffers along ditches, grass waterways, cover crops, and planting green.

Although being a District Conservationist with the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) has played a role in the farm’s conservation journey, Thompson believes they would have still ended up exactly where they are even without his involvement with NRCS.

Watch the full interview below!

Are You Smarter than a 1st Grader?

Soil testing is a valuable way for farmers, gardeners, and those with lawns to know what nutrients are already available in their soil, as well as what nutrients should be added. Not knowing what is already available in your soil, makes it easy to over-apply or under-apply fertilizers. Over application can cause negative impacts on water quality if runoff transfers the excess nutrients to waterways. Having too few nutrients in your soil can impede plant growth.

No matter what you’re growing, getting a soil test is important!

On Friday, May 14th, the Allen County SWCD and Purdue Extension partnered to teach soil testing to the first grade students at Washington Elementary School in downtown Fort Wayne. The students did an excellent job listening!

James Wolff from Purdue Extension and Joelle Neff & Ben Taylor from the Allen County SWCD demonstrating soil testing and soil textures to the 1st grad class at Washington Elementary School.

The class learned the importance of getting a soil test. Their faces lit up as they answered questions about how we can protect our water systems by keeping excess nutrients out of them. Excitement filled the school grounds as teachers, students and agency staff chose different locations to collect soil samples from. Each student was able to pick a spot from which to collect a sample.

Soil testing in groups around Washington Elementary School’s property.

The first graders not only learned about soil testing, but they also learned about the different textures of soil. The students got to feel examples of sand, silt, and clay, as well as play a game that taught them the different properties of these textures. Sand is the largest particle with lots of surface area. It feels course when rubbed between your fingers. It allows for good drainage and doesn’t hold water or nutrients very well. Silt is the medium-sized particle. It feels smooth like baking flour when wet. It doesn’t stick together, so it still has good drainage, but it is small enough to hold water and nutrients. Clay is the smallest soil texture. It sticks together when wet giving it a sticky texture. Much of the soil in Northeast Indiana has a heavy clay content. Clay does not drain water easily, sometimes remaining waterlogged and causing root rot in plants. On the other hand, clay soils are excellent at holding nutrients.

If you knew all this, congrats! You are smarter than a first grader, but don’t stop there! Keep learning about Conservation Practices like soil testing.

This demonstration was sponsored by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through our Urban and Small Farms Program. The USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Live from Avilla

On April 13th, 2021, Derek Thompson, a local farmer and NRCS District Conservationist, shared his experience with no-till farming at Live from Avilla. This live, virtual event was designed to demonstrate the equipment modification necessary for a no-till operation. By taking a close-up look at Thompson’s planter, all thirteen participants learned what to pay attention to and what adjustments are necessary in this kind of system.

Thompson gave great advise for farmers who have not done much no-till but are interested in trying it. He suggested starting small. Throwing all your eggs in one basket may lead to frustration and disappointment. Asking lots of question to those around you that have no-till experience can help you avoid certain mistakes and can give you more opportunity for success.

Live from Avilla was sponsored by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) through the Urban and Small Farms Program. The USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

SWCC Prescribed Burn Workshop

The Allen County SWCD along with the Southwest Conservation Club (SWCC), Pheasants Forever, Quail Forever, Indiana DNR, and the Natural Resource Conservation Service partnered for a prescribed burn workshop. This workshop informed attendees about wildlife habitat and the various ways to manage it. It also gave a basis on who to contact, what permits are necessary, what to do in an urban situation, and what equipment is necessary to perform a prescribed burn.

Due to the inclement weather, we were unable to do a live demonstration of the burn, but attendees were still able to go outside and learn techniques and dive into the equipment. Both Jessica Merkling with InDNR and Ryan Owen with Pheasants Forever, Quail Forever, and the NRCS, did an amazing job presenting and gave great insight into performing a burn.

The SWCC Prescribed Burn Workshop was the first hybrid event that the Allen County SWCD had ever done, meaning it was both in person and virtual. We learned a lot through this event, and we’re looking forward to improve ourselves in both virtual and in-person events.

Below is the recording of this workshop. If you’re interested in doing a burn on your property, this is a great place to start!

2020 River Boat Tours Prove to Be Successful

This fall, the Allen County SWCD and the Maumee Watershed Alliance had numerous opportunities to give tours of Fort Wayne’s three rivers – the St. Mary’s, the St. Joseph’s, and the Maumee. These tours were designed to educate both farmers and urbanites on the importance of water quality and the part everyone plays in maintaining and improving the water quality around Allen County. Greg Lake, the Allen Co. SWCD Director, and Dan Wire, an Associate SWCD Board Member and Maumee Watershed Alliance Member, expressed how important it is to get people on the water. According to Dan Wire, “When people get on the river, they realize it’s not as bad as they thought.” Riding the river also gives an understanding of the programs already in place to improve and maintain water quality and the opportunities to get involved.

The Allen County SWCD even had the chance to give a tour to both Tom Bechman, the editor for the Indiana Prairie Farmer, and Jerry Raynor, the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) State Conservationist. Dan Wire and Greg Lake shared about the programs that improve water quality locally, and Jerry Raynor spoke about what is happening statewide in the promotion of conservation. Tom Bechman wrote several stories about his trip to Allen County and published them in the October 2020 issue of the Indiana Prairie Farmer. Now the message of water quality is being spread across Indiana.

Take a look at these articles written by Tom Bechman from his visit to Allen County!

https://www.farmprogress.com/conservation/ag-urban-groups-both-need-clean-water

https://www.farmprogress.com/conservation/what-water-monitoring-project-reveals-about-water-quality

https://www.farmprogress.com/conservation/science-behind-stream-monitoring-water-quality

https://www.farmprogress.com/commentary/huntington-university-turns-out-quality-ag-graduates

GLRI-USGS Edge of Field Project

GLRI-USGS Edge of Field Project

January 2021

An update on the SWCD and USGS partnership: Edge of Field Project. This project collaborates with local farmers to collect water samples for an estimate five years to measure nutrients, sediment, and other critical elements for USGS research.

In January 2021, the SWCD staff were trained how to collect samples and send the collection and other information to USGS. Information is collected and sent after significant rain/snow fall events when water has entered the systems.

The systems are built on the land of cooperating landowners and farmers, at no cost to the farmer. USGS incurs all of the installation costs and other necessary elements. USGS is always looking for new sites to host these Edge of Field sites. Contact our office if you would like more information about this project.

A water sample collected from a tile in Grabill, Indiana. These samples were packaged and sent to Wisconsin for processing.